On 24 August 1943, German submarine U-185 (Type IXC/40, Kptlt. A. Maus) sunk by depth charges from Avenger and Wildcat aircraft of US Navy Composite Squadron 13 (VC-13), operating from escort carrier USS Core (CVE-13) in position 27.00N, 37.06W.
U-185 sinking (photo: US Navy)
Records on U-185 are held at the US National Archives.
“On this day in history” 24 August, the following U-boats were at sea:
“On the day in history” 22 June 1940, German Type IXB submarine U-122 (KrvKpt. Hans-Günther Looff) missing presumed lost in the North Atlantic.
U-122’s last reported position was approx. 56.00N, 10.30W on 21 June 1940. The submarine was reported missing on 27 July 1940 after repeatedly failing to report its position.
It is possible that U-122 was lost due to a collision with SS San Felipe on 22 June 1940, but there is no record of a wreck.
All 49 officers and men aboard U-122 were lost.
German submarine losses “on this day in history” 8 June.
U-373 (Oblt. Detlef von Lehsten) lost 8 June 1944. Sunk with depth charges by a Liberator from No. 224 Squadron RAF. There were 4 killed and 47 survivors.
U-740 (Kptlt. Günther Stark) lost 8 June 1944. Sunk with depth charges by a Liberator from No. 224 Squadron RAF. All hands (51) lost.
U-970 (Kptlt. Hans-Heinrich Ketels) lost 8 June 1944. Sunk with depth charges by a Sunderland from No. 228 Squadron RAF. There were 38 killed and 14 survivors.
German submarines at sea on this day 7 June during the Battle of the Atlantic:
The two U-Boats still at sea on 7 June 1945, 30-days after VE Day, were U-530 (Oblt. Otto Wermuth) and U-977 (Oblt. Heinz Schaeffer). Both submarines were heading for Argentina.
INDIAN OCEAN: On 6 November, a merchant vessel reported a pirate attack near position 05:40 S – 046:59 E, approximately 450 nm east-southeast of Mombasa, Kenya. The ship reported being attacked by five heavily armed pirates in one skiff, with the pirates reportedly exchanging gunfire with the ship’s embarked security team. The alarm was raised as the attack started, and the ship increased speed, activated the fire pumps, and started evasive maneuvers. The pirates reportedly moved away from the ship after the embarked security team returned gunfire.
INDIAN OCEAN: On 5 November, FGS NIEDERSACHSEN interdicted a pirate attack off Somalia. The PAG reportedly consisted of one whaler and skiff. There
were ten suspected pirates sighted in the boats along with numerous large fuel barrels. Upon closer surveillance, personnel in the boats were reportedly seen throwing two long ladders overboard before heading back to the beach.
INDONESIA: On 4 November, an anchored chemical tanker experienced an attempted boarding near position 03:54 N – 098:46 E, Belawan Anchorage. Duty crew spotted one boat with robbers attempting to board the tanker via anchor chain but alert crew thwarted the boarding. A second boat was hidden near the propeller and the crew could not chase them away with fire hoses. The propeller was turned on resulting in the robbers moving away. The robbers were spotted with some stolen hull anodes in their boat. Port Control informed of the incident.
INDIA: On 2 November, an anchored container ship experienced a boarding near position 21:40 N – 088:01 E, Sagar Anchorage. 15 armed robbers boarded the ship and were spotted by ship’s duty officer, who raised the alarm. The robbers were stealing ship’s stores and jumped overboard when the alarm was raised.
Source: United States Navy, Office of Naval Intelligence.
The ‘Boikiy’ (Бойкий) is a Steregushchy-class corvette (Project 20380) commissioned into the Russian Navy in May 2013. The ‘Karlsruhe’ is a Bremen-class frigate commissioned into the Bundesmarine (now the Deutsche Marine) in 1982. A ‘PASSEX’ is a passing exercise that tests communication between two navies.
Russian, German Warships to Train Jointly in Baltic Sea
MOSCOW, October 7 (RIA Novosti) – Russian-German naval exercises, codenamed PASSEX, will be held on Monday in the Gulf of Finland, the press service of Russia’s Western Military District said.
Russian corvette Boiky.
The exercises will involve Russia’s newest Baltic Fleet warship, the Project 20380 Boiky corvette and Germany’s Karlsruhe frigate.
«During the joint exercise in the Gulf of Finland the ships will test communication and train joint maneuvers,” the press service said in a statement.
The naval maneuvers will be the final part of the German frigate’s visit to St. Petersburg, which began on October 2.
German frigate Karlsruhe.
Only the “majors.” Smaller vessels (less than 10,000 HP), such as the Royal Navy’s HMS Protector, and “ice-strengthened” vessels such as the British Antarctic Survey’s RRS Ernest Shackleton, are not included.
U.S. Coast Guard’s 2013 Reivew of Major Ice Breakers of the World
The Coast Guard Office of Waterways and Ocean Policy (CG-WWM) began producing the chart of major icebreakers of the world in July 2010. Since then, we have gathered icebreaker information and recommendations from a variety of sources and experts, including icebreaker subject-matter experts, internet posts, news updates, Arctic experts and Coast Guard offices with icebreaker equities. We validate our information within the public forum and update the chart at least semi-annually based on new information and feedback. This chart represents the Coast Guard’s current factual understanding of the major icebreaker fleet. This chart is not intended for icebreaker fleet comparisons and no inference should be drawn regarding a country’s icebreaker “ranking” against another.
The following is the July 18, 2013 review by the U.S. Coast Guard of Major Icebreakers of the World.
Scope. Vessels meeting the general definition of a polar icebreaker per the 2007 National Research Council report on Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World are included. These vessels “have sailed in significant sea ice in either the Arctic or the Antarctic,” have “ice strengthening sufficient for polar ice” and possess “installed power of at least 10,000 horsepower.” Minimally ice-strengthened ships (enough to survive in ice, rather than operate in it) and icebreakers of less than 10,000 horsepower are not included. With the exception of the Baltic icebreakers, this chart does not indicate where their owners may actually operate them. In addition, the chart does not specify whether a vessel’s crew is civilian or military.
Classification Methodology: The chart organizes the icebreakers first by country, then by installed power category, and finally in order of placement in service, youngest to oldest. The chart colors icebreakers by their relative capability estimated using brake horsepower as the most common basis. The most capable icebreakers are black, the next level sea-green and the lightest icebreakers are blue. Icebreakers in construction are colored yellow, and planned icebreakers are white. Planned icebreakers are placed on the chart if we can reliably state they are funded. The chart identifies government-owned or -operated icebreakers with the country’s flag next to the icebreaker. Nuclear-powered icebreakers are marked with an N. Baltic icebreakers designed to operate solely in seasonal, first-year Baltic Sea ice but meeting the ice-strengthening and horsepower criteria are marked on the chart with a B. Most Baltic icebreakers may not have operated in the Arctic due to concerns with open-ocean sea-keeping ability for open water transits.
Fleet numbers and Icebreaker Size in Context. The fleet numbers and icebreaker size tend to align along each county’s economic necessity for icebreaker resources. For example, the economies of Finland, Russia and Sweden have greater dependence on major icebreakers to pursue economic goals in the Arctic and Baltic winters than the economies of other nations. Also, ice in these countries’ shipping lanes, rivers and ports forms earlier, lasts longer, and requires more power to break, requiring more extensive icebreaking capabilities. Similarly, the Canadian icebreaker fleet supports summer access and supply to Canada’s Arctic communities. In contrast, in addition to the polar icebreakers already listed, the U.S has a number of icebreakers operating in the Great Lakes, New England and the mid-Atlantic to facilitate commerce and for exigent circumstances, but these are not listed in this chart because the icebreakers are not required to meet the threshold of at least 10,000 BHP.
An undated photo of USCGC Healy (WAGB – 20). US Coast Guard Photo
150-minutes of documentary goodness is 3 digestible episodes.
Part 1: The Grey Wolves
Part 2: Keeping Secrets
Part 3: The Hunted